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An Introduction to the History of Modern Persian Sufism, Part I: The Nimatullahi Order: Persecution, Revival and Schism
Leonard Lewisohn

Тут можно прочитать статью полностью: http://www.scribd.com/doc/137892198/Persian

В ней, в частности, есть такой рассказ про популярную песню на стихи Муниса 'Али Шаха (Dhu'l-Riyasatayn - это его другое имя):

--- Цитировать ---In 1307/1928, Munis moved from Shiraz to Tehran where in 1315/1936 he established his famous Chahar Suq Khanaqah (a lovely qasida was composed by Jalal al-Din Humai to commemorate the foundation of this centre), one of the most important Sufi hospices in early twentieth-century Tehran. Besides editing and publishing some of the treatises of Shah Ni'matullah in the literary review Armaghan, Dhu'l-Riyasatayn was the author of six risalas treating such diverse subjects as pilgrimage, visionary revelations, free will and determinism, and the concept of the Spirit, as well as several books such as Munis al-salikin, Dalil al-salikin, and Anis al-musafirin; his book Burhan al-salikin and a slim Diwan of his poems were published during the author's lifetime by Javad Nurbakhsh. As a poet, Munis attracted considerable popularity in his own day, and his ghazal beginning with the hemistich 'Faith and infidelity are one and the same to lovers with good will...' actually became a 'hit' when sung by the famous singer Qavami. Today, however, interest in his works has declined and his writings are seldom read and no longer in print.
--- Конец цитаты ---

"Как поэт, Мунис был довольно популярен в свое время, и его газель в исполнении известного певца Кавами стала 'хитом'"

Эту песню в исполнении знаменитого в то время певца Хосейна Гхавами (Кавами), о котором и упоминает Люисон, можно послушать на сайте Golha Project (этот проект был основан Джейн Льюисон для оцифровки и сохранения иранских аудиозаписей):
с 8:33 примерно до 19:36
Musicians: Jalil Shahnaz (Tar)
Singer of the Avaz: Husayn Qavami (Fakhta’i)
Poet of poem sung (Avaz): Dhu’l-Riyasatayn (Munis ‘Ali Shah) (Ghazal)
First hemstitch of the poem sung (Avaz): kufr u din dar bar-i ‘ushshaq-i niku-kar har du yiki’st

То, что Анри Корбен назвал "изумляющей деятельностью" [Джавада] Нурбахша, привлекло внимание различных ученых, которые часто подчеркивали удивительную широту его ума.

Д-р Нурбахш был очень активен и в своей специальности - психиатрии. Во время своей работы в качестве главы факультета психиатрии в Тегеранском университете и руководителя психиатрической больницы Рузбих в Тегеране он опубликовал в иранских научных журналах множество статей по психологии, преимущественно посвященный фрейдизму.


К началу 1970-х годов д-р Нурбахш основал в Иране 50 ханак и к 1978 г. их было уже около 60-и.

Леонард Луисон. Введение в историю современного персидского суфизма: орден Ниматуллахи.

An Introduction to the History of Modern Persian Sufism, Part I: The Nimatullahi Order: Persecution, Revival and Schism


Эмблема братства. Ханака г. Санта Круз, США

Портрет дервиша Нур Али Шаха Из книги "Антология Азербайджанского худ. искусства"

Материалы на английском PDF

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NIMAT-ALLAHIYYA, a Persian Sufi order that soon after its inception in the 8th/14th century transferred its loyalties to Shffi Islam. The NicmatAllahiyya first took root in south-eastern Persia where it continued to prosper until the time of Shah cAbbas. For the next two centuries it survived only in the Deccani branch that had been established in the 9th/15th century. Reintroduced into Persia with considerable
vigour in the early 13th/late 18th century, the Nicmat Allahiyya became the most widespread Sufi order in the country, a position it has retained until recent times.
1. The founder and the development of his order.
The eponym of the order, Shah Nicmat Allah Nur al-Dln b. cAbd Allah Wall (sometimes designated additionally as Kirmani, especially in Indian sources)
was born in Aleppo, in either 730/1329-30 or 731/1330-1. His father was a sayyid, claiming descent from Ismacfl b. Djacfar (which may help to account for the loyalty given the Nicmat Allah! order by several Nizari imams of the Kasim-Shahl line), and his mother was descended from the Shabankara rulers of Pars. The stylistic superiority of Nicmat Allah's Persian to his Arabic writings suggests that he must have been brought to a Persian-speaking environment while still a child. In any event, he is recorded to have studied during his early youth in Shiraz with theologians such as Sayyid Djalal al-Dln Khwarazmi and cAdud al-Dln al-Idji (d. 756/1355). Nicmat Allah was initiated into Sufism by the well-known Yemeni historian and muhaddith, cAbd Allah al-Yafici (d.768/1367), whose spiritual lineage went back through
three generations to Abu Madyan (d. 590/1194).
Nicmat Allah joined al-YaficT's circle in Mecca when he was twenty-four years of age, and stayed with him until his death. Most probably it was al-YaficT, who
frequently described the Sufis as "kings" in his writings, who bestowed the title of Shah on Nicmat Allah.
After the death of his master, Nicmat Allah embarked on a long series of travels. These brought him first to Egypt, where he spent a period of retreat in the cave on Mt. Mukattam that had been used for the same purpose by the BektashT saint Kayghusuz Abdal [g.v.]. He then travelled through Syria and clrak to Adharbaydjan, meeting in Ardabll with the progenitor of the Safawids, Shaykh Sadr al-Dln and possibly with Kasim al-Anwar (although the latter can have been little more than an adolescent).
It was in Transoxiana that Nicmat Allah first presented himself as a murshid and the propagator of a new order. Conditions there must have appeared propitious, for the Turkic nomads of the area, awaiting Islamisation, offered a vast pool of potential
recruits on which other Sufi shaykhs were already drawing. It was, however, precisely the extent of Nicmat Allah's success in establishing khdnakdhs in several locations and, more importantly, in recruiting a large number of nomads in the area of Shahr-i Sabz that aroused the suspicion of Tlmur [q.v.] and led to Nicmat Allah's expulsion from Transoxiana. Accounts differ regarding the precise circumstances of his departure; several of them attribute it to the jealousy of Amir Kulal (d. 772/1370), the spiritual master of Baha° al-Dln Nakshband (J. Aubin, Materiaux pour la biographic de Shah Ni^matullah Wali Kirmani1, 12-15). There is, however, no mention in
the sources on Amir Kulal of any clash with Nicmat Allah, which could, after all, have been presented in favourable and even triumphant terms. On the other hand, the clearly deliberate omission of Nicmat Allah by the Nakshbandi cAbd al-Rahman DjamT from his Nafahdt al-uns may indeed reflect some inherited distaste for the founder of the Nicmat-Allahiyya. From Transoxiana, Nicmat Allah went first to Tus
and then to Harat, arriving there probably in 774/1372-3. He emerged from a period of seclusion to marry the granddaughter of Amir Husayn Harawi, a well-known poet, and to engage in agriculture, a pursuit he continued to follow for the rest of his life and to recommend to his disciples as "the true alchemy". At the suggestion of the followers whom he acquired while in Harat, he moved the following year to Kirman,
an area which may have seemed desirable because of its comparative remoteness from the main centres of power of the day. At first he settled in Kuhbanan, outside the city; it was there that Shah Khalfl Allah, his only son, was born. Later he moved to the
city itself and then to its suburb of Mahan, leaving the Kirman area only rarely to visit Yazd, Taft and, in 816/1413-14, Shlraz, in response to an invitation by Iskandar b. cUmar Shaykh, the Tlmurid governor of Pars. Nicmat Allah died in Mahan in 834/1430-1 and was buried in the proximity of the madrasa and khdnakdh he had constructed there. This last period in the life of Nicmat Allah was by far the most fruitful. Apart from his disciples in Kirman, he had several thousand devotees in Shlraz, who are said to have included the Sufi poet Shah Dacl ShirazI, the theologian Mir Sayyid Sharif DjurdjanT and the gastronome-poet Bushak-i Atcima (by contrast,
a somewhat later poet, Hafiz, is said to have condemned Shah Nicmat Allah obliquely for his claims to spiritual eminence, in the poem that begins "Might those who transmute the soil with their gaze also glance briefly on us?", Diwdn, ed. Kazwlnl and
GhanI, Tehran n.d., 132-3).
Shah Nicmat Allah also wrote profusely; many hundreds of treatises have been attributed to him. Even allowing for exaggeration and misattribution and taking into account the fact that many of the "treatises" are brief notes or communications, the
size of Shah Nicmat Allah's literary corpus remains impressive. His writings include exegetical essays on the Kur3an and the dicta of earlier shaykhs and, more importantly, treatises that expound leading themes in the Sufism of Ibn cArabI, especially wahdat al-wudjud. He also composed a commentary on Ibn cArab!'s
Fusus al-hikam, claiming that he had been vouchsafed a perfect comprehension of the book by inspiration from the Prophet, just as the author had received the
book itself from the same infallible source. Better known and more widely read than Nicmat Allah's treatises is, perhaps, his Diwdn, which consists for the most part of verses expounding wahdat alwudjud with a particular emphasis on the impossibility
of ontological multiplicity. Despite the manifest influence on Nicmat Allah's poetry of cAttar and RumI, his fondness for the technical terminology and conventional symbols of Sufism detracts heavily from the poetic effect of his verse. The most frequently cited poems in his Diwdn are those of prophetic or apocalyptic
nature which have been interpreted as foretelling events as diverse as the rise of the Safawids, the separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan and the Islamic Revolution in Iran of 1978-9. These verses, the authenticity of at least some of which is open to
question, have tended to make of Shah Nicmat Allah the Persian equivalent of Nostradamus (Browne, LHP, iii, 463-73).
There can be little doubt that Nicmat Allah remained a SunnT throughout his life. His master al-YaficT was a ShaficT, and he himself frequently cited the hadiths of Abu Hurayra in his works, something unthinkable in a Sh^I author. Nonetheless, elements
that may have facilitated the later transition of the Nicmat-Allahiyya to ShlSsm are also to be encountered in his writings. These include a belief in Twelve Poles (aktdb-i dawdzdah-gdnd) of the spiritual universe and an emphasis on wildya as the inner
dimension of prophethood.
Shah Nicmat Allah Wall was succeeded by his son Shah Khalll Allah, then fifty-nine years of age. Not long after his father's death, he was summoned to the court of the Tlmurid Shahrukh in Harat. According to the hagiographical sources, this invitation was a sign of the monarch's veneration for him, but it is more likely that Shahrukh sensed a political danger in the strength and number of the Nicmat-Allahls. That
relations between Khalll Allah and the ruler were not altogether harmonious is shown by Shahrukh's refusal to exempt the family lands from taxation. For whatever reason, some time between 836/1432 and 840/1436, Khalll Allah decided to leave Persia. Entrusting the shrine at Mahan to one of his sons, Mir Shams al-Dln, he departed for the Deccan with his two other sons, Muhibb al-Dln Hablb Allah and Habib al-Dln Muhibb Allah.
Ahmad Shah Bahman, the ruler of the Deccan [see BAHMANIDS], had already sent a delegation to Shah Nicmat Allah inviting him to settle at Bldar [q.v.] in his kingdom. Formerly a devotee of the Cishti saint Glsu daraz, he was searching for a new preceptor, one who might enjoy prestige among the immigrant elite, the so-called Afakls, on which he was coming increasingly to rely. Shah Nicmat Allah had refused the invitation, but he sent Ahmad Shah a letter of initiation that also granted him the title of wait. Some years later, Ahmad Shah sent a second delegation to Mahan, this time asking for Khalll Allah to be sent to the Deccan. This request, too, was refused, but his grandson Nur Allah was sent by way of compensation. Ahmad Shah received him with great honour, giving him his daughter in marriage and elevating him over all the indigenous Sufis by naming him malik al-mashdyikh.
Now that Khalll Allah had finally come, he and his party were greeted with similar enthusiasm. Although links with Persia were not entirely broken, the leadership
of both the Nicmat-AllahI family and order was now to remain in the Deccan for several generations: Khalll Allah died in 860/1456, and was succeeded in turn by Hablb al-Dln; Mir Shah Kamal al-Dln; Burhan al-Dln Khalll Allah II; Mir Shah Shams al-Dln Muhammad; Mir Shah Hablb al-Dln Muhibb Allah II; Mir Shah Shams al-Dln Muhammad II; Mir Shah Kamal al-Dln II; and Mir Shah Shams al-Dln
Muhammad III. The leadership of the Nicmat-AllahI order then passed out of the family to a certain Mir Mahmud Dakkanl. Although the Nicmat-Allahls retained
their influence among the Deccani aristocracy even after the dynasty that had brought them there was replaced by the Kutb Shahls [ q . v . ] , they never succeeded in putting down roots among the population at large.
The Nicmat-Allahls who stayed in Persia initially enjoyed good relations with the Safawids. One of them, Mir Nizam al-Dln cAbd al-Bakl, was appointed sadrby Shah Ismacll in 917/1511-12, and subsequently became the wakil-i nafs-i humdyun (regent). cAbd al-Bakl's son mediated between the next Shah. Tahmasp, and his brother in 956/1549, and the new reign saw several marriages between the Nicmat-
Allahl family and the Safawid house. The relationship began to sour in the time of Shah cAbbas I when one member of the family, Amir Ghiyath al-Dln Mlrmlran,
became involved in an Afshar rebellion in Kirman. Thereafter, although members of the family continued to hold the posts of nakib and kaldntar in Yazd until at least 1082/1671-2, the Nicmat-Allahiyya seems to have disappeared from Persia as a functioning Sufi order. The only trace left of its existence consisted
of the Nicmatl gangs that, oblivious to their Sufi" origins, waged intermittent warfare with their Haydari rivals in a number of Persian cities, often with royal encouragement. The Nicmat-AllahI order was reintroduced into Persia by a certain Macsum CA1I Shah Dakkanl, sent there for the purpose by Rida CA1I Shah Dakkanl (d.1214/1799), the grandson and second successor of Mir Mahmud Dakkanl. With his ecstatic mode of preaching, Macsum cAh Shah swiftly gained a large following, particularly in Shlraz, Isfahan, Hamadan, and Kirman. The resurgent Nicmat-Allahiyya had, however, to confront the hostility of the Shl^I mudjtahids, newly invigorated by the triumph of the Usull doctrine which assigned them supreme authority in all religious affairs. Macsum CA1I Shah and several of his followers fell victim to this hostility; he was put to death himself at Kirmanshah in 1212/17_97-
8, while en route from Nadjaf to Mashhad, by Aka Muhammad CA1I BihbahanI, a mudjtahid popularly known as sufikush ("Sufi killer"). Macsum CA1I Shah's principal companion and disciple was Nur CA1I Shah of Isfahan, a prolific author in both poetry and prose. His works are replete with theopathic utterances; themes of ghuldt ShlSsm that seem to echo the verse of Shah Ismacll; and criticisms of the Shi*-! ^ulamd^. (The combination of these elements suggests that the renascent Nicmat-
Allahiyya of the time had doctrinally little in common with the order as first established by Shah Nicmat Allah and his immediate descendants.) Particularly
provocative of ^ulamd^ indignation was, no doubt, Nur CA1I Shah's assertion that the SufT master is the true deputy (nd^ib) of the Hidden Imam. Nur CA1I Shah accompanied his master on all his journeys except the last, fatal one, dying himself the same year in Mawsil, allegedly from poison administered by agents of
Four years later, BihbahanI himself died, and the antagonism between the Nicmat-Allahls and the cM/amaD began to decline. This development was furthered
by the adoption of more circumspect doctrines and attitudes by the Nicmat-Allahls themselves, which permitted them to establish themselves as a lasting although subordinate element of Persian religious life. No longer seeming subversive, the Nicmat-Allahls also ceased to arouse the hostility of the Kadjar monarchs, one of whom, Muhammad Shah, himself became an initiate of the order. The Nicmat-AllahI
order was thus able to grow throughout the 13th/19th century. However, as it expanded, it divided into several, often mutually hostile branches, only the more important of which will be mentioned here. Muhammad Djacfar Kabudar-ahangI Madjdhub CA1I Shah (d. 1238/1823) was the last leader to exercise undisputed control over the whole order. Three separate claimants to the leadership arose after him: Kawthar CAH Shah (d. 1247/1831); Sayyid Husayn Astarabadl; and Zayn al-cAbidm ShirwanI Mast CA1I Shah (d. 1253/1837-8). The first became the eponym
of a sub-order known as the Kawthariyya, which has survived down to the present, although with a very small membership; its best-known leader in modern times was Nasir CA1I Shah Malik-niya (still living in the late 1970s). The line descended from Astarabadl also reached into the 20th century, producing one of the most celebrated Persian Sufis of recent times, Sayyid Husayn Husaynl Shams al-cUrafaD (d. 1353/1935), after whom it is retrospectively known as the Shamsiyya. Its following, too, has generally been very restricted.
The main line of Nicmat-AllahI descent is that which passes through Mast CA1I Shah. He was the author of several important works refuting the legalistic criticisms that were still being directed against Nicmat-AllahI Sufism (see in particular his
Kashf al-ma'drif, Tehran 1350 -S&./1971) and three compendious travelogues, valuable for the detailed information they contain on the Sufis of diverse affiliations
whom Mast CA1I Shah met in the course of his travels.
After the death in 1278/1861 of Zayn al-cAbid!n Rahmat CAH Shah, the successor of Mast CA1I Shah, a further trifurcation took place, one more serious than the first because it affected the main body of the Nicmat-Allahis. The first of the three claimants to leadership was Sacadat CA1I Shah Tawus al-cUrafa° (d. 1293/1876 in Tehran), who is said to have been a Sufi of the traditional ecstatic type, the clarity of
whose heart was unclouded by any learning. His successor, Sultan CAH Shah Gunabadl from Bldukht in Khurasan, was a man of quite different type. He
studied philosophy with the celebrated Mulla Had! Sabzawari before embarking on the Sufi path, and even after beginning to train his own murids he continued
to give instruction in the formal religious sciences at his khdnakdh in Bldukht. He wrote a wellregarded commentary on the KurDan of a mysticalphilosophical
nature, entitled Bay an al-sa^dda. Murdered by an unknown assailant in 1327/1909, he was succeeded by his son, Hadjdj Mulla CA1I GunabadI Nur CA1F Shah-i Than! (d. 1337/1918). This introduction of hereditary succession gave rise to a new sub-order known as the GunabadT, with reference to the area surrounding Sultan CA1I Shah's place of origin. Hadjdj Mulla CA1T was succeeded first by Salih CA1T Shah (d. 1386/1966) and then by Rida CA1T Shah Tabanda (still living in 1992). Although the Gunabadls generally eschew the designation Nicmat- Allahl and cannot therefore be regarded as representing the main line of the Nicmat-AllahI order, they have been for several decades the largest single group of Nicmat-Allahi descent in Iran. It is no doubt because of the sober, sharfa-oriented nature of their Sufism that they have been able to retain this position even after the establishment of the Islamic Republic.
The San"-cAlI-Shahiyya, another offshoot of the Nicmat-Allahi order emerging from the dispute over the succession to Rahmat CA1I Shah, developed in a quite different direction. Its eponym, Hadjdj Mlrza Hasan Isfahan! SafT CA1I Shah, spent some time in India promoting his father's mercantile interests before returning to Iran and becoming a disciple of Rahmat CA1T Shah. On the death of his master, he initially accepted the authority of Munawwar CA1T Shah, another of Rahmat CA1T Shah's disciples, but the following year he declared himself the immediate successor of
Rahmat CA1I Shah and proclaimed his independence. Like his contemporary and rival, Sultan CA1I Shah GunabadT, he also wrote a commentary on the Kurgan, but it was widely criticised, both because of its contents and because it was composed in verse. On SafT CAH Shah's death in 1316/1899, the leadership of the order was assumed by Zahir al-Dawla Safa CA1T Shah, minister of the court and brother-in-law of the ruling monarch, Muzaffar al-Dln Shah; not surprisingly, this gave a somewhat aristocratic complexion to the SafT-cAli-Shahiyya. Given the incipient westernising
tendencies among the Iranian political elite, it was perhaps natural that a further transformation should also have set in during Safa CAH Shah's lifetime. He
established a twelve-man committee to supervise the operations of the order which under its new designation Andjuman-i Ukhuwwat ("Society of Brotherhood")
was effectively transformed into a pseudo-masonic lodge; many_of its members were, in fact, also initiates of Biddri-yi Iran ("The Awakening of Iran"), the first
masonic lodge in Iran affiliated with the French Grand Orient. The society abandoned virtually all the traditional rites of Sufism, but continued to flourish among certain classes until the advent of the Islamic Republic, when its activities were brought to an end, together with those of all other masonic organisations.
Its last leader was cAbd Allah Intizam (d. 1982). It is the line of a third claimant to the succession of Rahmat CA1I Shah, Hadjdj Muhammad Aka Munawwar CA1I Shah (d. 1310/1884) that has the best claim to be regarded as the main line of Nicmat-AllahI
descent; its adherents continue to designate themselves exclusively as Nicmat-AllahI, although the clarificatory expression "line of Dhu '1-Riyasatayn" (an epithet borne by the third successor to Munawwar CA1T Shah) is sometimes additionally used.
Munawwar CA1I Shah was succeeded in turn by VVafa0 CA1I Shah (d. 1336/1918), Sadik CA1I Shah (d.1340/1922) and Hadjdj Mirza cAbd al-Husayn Dhu '1-Riyasatayn Mu'nis CA1T Shah (d. 1372/1953). A man of wide erudition, Mu-'nis CA1T Shah enjoyed great respect during the thirty years he directed the order, but its unity could not be maintained on his death. The traditional pattern of discord reasserted itself as thirteen claimants to the succession came forward. The most visibly successful of them was Dr.Djawad Nurbakhsh, a psychiatrist. He managed to
recruit many members of Tehran high society at a time when the profession of a certain type of Sufism was becoming fashionable; to build a whole series of new khdnakdhs around the country; and to publish a large quantity of Nicmat-AllahI literature, including many of his own writings. As the Islamic Revolution
of 1978-9 approached victory, Nurbakhsh left Iran, and he now administers a mixed following of Iranian emigres and Western converts resident in many cities
of Europe and North America.
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The descendants of Shah Ni^matulldh Wall, in 1C,
xlviii/1 (January 1974), 49-57; eidem, Ismd^ilis and
Ni^matulldhis, in SI, xli (1974), 113-35; Ismacil
Ra°Tn, Fardmushjkhdnah wa frdmdsunn dar Iran,
Tehran 1357 ^.71978, iii, 480-505;J. Rypka, Dans
I'intimite d'un mystique iranien, in L'Ame de I'Iran, ed.
R. Grousset, H. Masse and L. Massignon, Paris
1951, 181-200; Muhammad Suleman Siddiqi, The
BahmaniSufis, New Delhi n.d., 78-85, 155-62; cAbd
al-Husayn _Zarrinkub, Dunbdla-yi djustudju dar
tasawwuf-i Iran, Tehran 1362 jS£./1983, 189-200,
317-32, 336-47. (HAMID ALGAR)
2. Nicmat Allah and his family at the Bahmani court of South India.
When Khalil Allah b. Nicmat Allah arrived in the BahmanT capital Bldar after his father's death in 834/1431, he established there a khdnkdh for his kinsfolk and followers, and his own tomb (cawkhandi) became a prominent landmark near the royal tombs, where many of his descendants still live. The Bahmani sultan Ahmad Shah's own tomb is liberally embellished with extracts from the diwdn and other writings of Nicmat Allah (the texts are given in extenso, with translations, in G. Yazdani, Bidar, its history and monuments, Oxford 1947, 115-28, with some illustrations on Pis. LXIX-LXXIV).
The tomb of Nicmat Allah at Mahan, some 20 miles/36 km south-east of Kirman in eastern Persia, was erected in 840/1437 by Ahmad Shah Bahmani's orders, although the splendid dome dates from the time of the Safawid Shah c Abbas I and the minarets
at the entrance are from the early Kadjar period.
Bibliography: See also R.M. Eaton, The Sufis of Bijapur 1300-1700, Princeton 1978, 56 ff.; H.K.
Sherwani, The Bahmanis of the Deccan2, Delhi 1985,
133-4. Sherwani's accounts differ slightly from
those in Yazdani, Bidar, and are based on fuller information.

Для иранских дервишей из ордена Ни'матуллахи сочинение Шабистари [Гулшан-и раз, "Цветник тайн"] "служило (и, возможно, все еще служит) традиционным пособием для всех мужчин и женщин, которые примыкают к братству, составляя своего рода "третий орден"*.

* Светская организация, подчиняющаяся какому-либо религиозному братству.

Аннемари Шиммель.Мир исламского мистицизма.М.1999.С.221.

Хаким Бей (англ. Hakim Bey) — Питер Ламборн Уилсон (англ. Peter Lamborn Wilson, р. 1945) — американский политический писатель, эссеист и поэт.

Он изучает Тантру в Западной Бенгалии и посещает многие суфийские святыни и суфийских учителей. В 1971 году он провел исследование суфийского ордена Ниматуллахи при финансовой помощи Фонда Марсден из Нью-Йорка. Данное исследование стало основой книги Уилсона «Короли Любви».

Из Википедии

Глава из книги Уилсона "Короли любви" здесь

(Из книги "Короли Любви. Поэзия и история братства Ниматуллахи". Н. Поурджавади и П.Л. Вилсон ,Тегеран, 1978 г., стр.80-86)


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